Mikhail Bakunin, God, and the State

The Foundation of Bakunin

Among the most famous classical anarchists, Mikhail Bakunin became one of the defenders of the resistance drive with his views on God and the state. In addition to people knowing or studying in general, there are many more of his theories. His antagonists in several bitter disputes, along with Karl Marx, offer analyzes of power, class, and social life. In contrast to Marx, in important respects, his thought provided the basis. He considers the politics of the marginalized and the power structures of domination and oppression.

Bakunin put forward a thorough critique of state power beyond what people recognized as an anarchist theorist. His strong opposition to the military and its repressive disciplinary practices influenced his view of the state. Overall, he relates the state to all situations. There is an inequality of power in matters that lie in an order of fact. Not only in certain forms of government but even the rejection of imaginary governments as well. He devoted a great deal of attention to debating atheism and viewing belief in God as human slavery based on worldly dictatorship, denial of reason, and imaginary will.

The Consciousness of Society

Each development implies the negation of Mikhail Bakunin and his starting point towards God and the state. According to the materialistic school of doctrine, the negation must be ideal and depart from the totality of the real world. The matter is an abstraction that logically arrives at true idealization. From humanization to society, there is a starting point for the idealist school. For Bakunin, it had to come down to the realization of social and the total organization of despotism. The vicious exploitation of the forms of church and state is a progressive increase. In the idealistic system, it is nothing but a constant shock.

A claim that the state dominates allegiance is central to Bakunin’s view of the state. He claims that the state imposes injustice as an obligation so that people become citizens and not humans. The state tries to break human solidarity by placing itself as the last point of reference for the citizens or the people. Internationally, morality must function at home, and states must strive to be as strong as they are at home and abroad. It is because the state needs to keep the people glued to the morality of the state. In essence, the state is a prison of an art site.

The Biography of Bakunin

Bakunin was the eldest son of a small landowner in the province of Tver. In 1835, he was absent without permission and resigned from duty when he was sent to the Artillery School at St. Petersburg. For five years, he divided his time between Premukhino, plunged into the studies of the German philosophers Johann Fichte and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and Moscow. In 1840, with his opinions still in a state of turmoil, he traveled to Berlin to complete his education. After much under the charm of the Young Hegelians, he published the first revolutionary creed in a radical journal in 1842.

Bakunin plunged a second time into revolutionary machinations and, involved in the Dresden uprising of May 1849, was arrested. The Saxon authorities handed him over to Austria, imprisoned him, and transferred him to Russia. At the invitation of the chief of police, he wrote the enigmatic Confession. It consists of expressions of repentance for guilt and lowly pleas for mercy. However, it also includes several movements of defiance, playing a heavy role in Bakunin’s devotion to the Slavs as well as hatred of the Germans.

The State

In the argument of Mikhail Bakunin, the state is a new, aggressive God. The modern state is a military state which needs to be pushed to conquer and to be aggressive. Just to defend its coercive unity against internal collapse or external invasion, the state needs an army, a police force, and a large bureaucracy. Furthermore, the state does not easily tolerate equality, because of its nature to pursue supremacy. Therefore, states tend to muster total strength and embark on conquests, under the pain of being crushed if they don’t. It always results in people being enslaved and conquered.

The state tends to place its sovereignty above the law, knows no bounds itself, and has the idea of an entity of a ludicrous nature. Bakunin’s point of view is a realist view, arguing that relations between countries always tend towards war. He also saw states always respond to as much internal pressure as external, contrary to the view of realism. One might think that Bakunin pressured poor countries to build capacity as a means of self-defense against imperialist invasion. However, please note, they are under pressure to build a military force.

God

The analogy of Mikhail Bakunin can be drawn through the depiction of God as the state and Satan as the society. When the state has discarded society completely and thus calling it materialist, the state thinks it has made and destroyed society. However, the state is still looking for where it went wrong. There are two completely different things namely God and Satan. Both are fictitious entities, like an infinite soul. State matter is a finite defilement, an entity as improbable as absolute and pure spirit. Both exist only as a figment of the abstract fantasy of theologians and metaphysicists. The history of philosophy has revealed to mankind a process, from the unconscious creation of fiction to the origin of fatal historical illusions, and terrible nightmares.

The state regulates enormous numbers from top to bottom. Therefore, the state is not able to deal with differences in human beings. It is necessary to believe that an individual or small group can understand all of a large number of other people to imagine a just state being possible. Bakunin proposes to view diversity in abilities as the abundance of humanity. The will of the people or the public interest is certainly the negation of all the real wills of certain people.

The Division

Fundamentally, those subject to abstraction are beings who arbitrarily sacrifice living things for themselves. The centralization of the state, of course, resulted in moral and intellectual damage. Mikhail Bakunin argues that the state is trying to lull culture into the obscurity of God. It happens because the state functions better if the people who are ruled are also silenced or numbed. However, it does not require that ignorance and the existence of the state are not able to separate the low status and ruling class towards the common good.

Talking about the bourgeoisie is complicated. Although they want a certain type of state, they also want a dictatorship with a closed nature and forms of representation for ideological reasons internally and by the masses. In Bakunin’s experience, he saw how class rights reproached each other. They regard postcolonial ideas of privilege as a detriment to have the effect of damaging one’s heart and mind.

Bakunin and Marx

Therefore, Bakunin disagrees with Marx’s analysis of class polarization by looking at class structures that are more like tiered hierarchies or pyramids. Bakunin believed that intellectuals who put science or thought above life were supporters of the state. There is more truth in instinctive aspiration than an intellectual endeavor. By calling for the abolition of the division of intellectual labor, he attempted to make an initial critique of the vanguard parties.

For Bakunin, it is a truth that should not be forgotten when humans want to understand anything about social and political phenomena. Communities meet to find it under similar living conditions when it comes to building a genuine and complete community of thought and will among human beings. Because of his existence, with each condition, the gulf between the world of the bourgeoisie and the world of workers, Bakunin began to deduce the world of the exploiters and the world of victims.

The Bourgeois

If a man born and raised in a bourgeois environment wants to sincerely become friends, he must abandon all past conditions of existence. In addition to overcoming all bourgeois habits, he must sever sentient relations with the bourgeois world. In essence, he must turn his back and become the enemy, declare war, to throw himself wholeheartedly into a world without direction.

Bakunin believed in fundamental class antagonisms. The bourgeoisie and the proletariat face each other as enemies. When the military unleashes its full power, it can destroy the people. However, at the same time, it exposes a social war situation. For Bakunin, the only response to such military barbarism was an equally savage and ruthless force. The state is based on power and not rights. Therefore, according to Bakunin, the victory of abstract rights cannot be a victory over the state. One of the most prominent aspects of Bakunin’s view of class is his emphasis on poorer and marginalized workers. He saw that this group was relatively uncontaminated by capitalist ideas and carried the seeds of revolution in their hearts.

The Appeasement of Liberty

Bakunin’s suppression is the urge to resist the strongest. On the other hand, he also acknowledged that the peasants were not always revolutionary. In Russia, he criticized their divided attitude about the state, namely worshiping the imaginary state and hating the real brutality of the state. With an interesting explanation, he believed the Russian peasant villages could not create popular uprisings because of isolation and restraint. While introducing the energy of revolutionary thought, it illustrates the ideas of composition within the autonomy to think about organizing resistance networks.

In politics, there is social reconciliation. There is the liberty’s deprivation of the people for the government’s sake, and there is the deliberate surrender of reason to the eternal principles of faith. Bakunin always imagined what the philosophical vinegar sauce of the most conflicting system would look like. However, he will always remember that the existence of a personal God encourages ignorance but underestimates natural science. At least, it is for Bakunin and his passion for the weakness of justice to inspire resolution and courage. Bakunin’s abstraction of justice will easily affect him in his hours of reflection letting the struggle come when an armed truce gives place to irreconcilable conflict.

Bibliography

About the author

Salman Al Farisi is the owner of Calxylian and is an elitist who has enjoyed and studied various mediums. He earned his Bachelor of Arts in 2020 from the Haluoleo University, Indonesia, where he studied English Literature, Film Criticism, Cultural Studies, Literary Theory, and Literary Criticism. He lives in Kendari in his mom's basement, now unemployed and ghostwriter, life with his cats, and is looking for the future.

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