Thu. Apr 18th, 2024


Beyond Good and Evil is a comprehensive review of the humanistic beliefs of Friedrich Nietzsche. Besides consisting of more than 200 aphorisms, Nietzsche grouped the words thematically into nine different chapters. Flanked by a preface and a poem, each aphorism can stand alone. There is a linear progression between the words in the chapter from one chapter to another despite each aphorism presenting a different point of view. However, the individual chapter summaries omit a lot.

In the preface, Nietzsche accused dogmatism of thinking. In the first chapter, he explores such claims emphatically as nothing more than personal confessions. Philosophers build complex systems of thought to justify their respective prejudices. If the reader can dig, the reader can see what philosopher Nietzsche values. Thus, it gains insight into such thinking. In a free spirit, the contrast of dogmatism is not trapped in a certain point of view. He always thought that future philosophers would always use experimental methods to try out a hypothesis or conclusion. Religious spirit becomes a claim and acts as dogmatism.

The Idiosyncrasy of Nietzsche

Nietzsche also begins an epigram at such parts, highlighting human psychology’s idiosyncrasies. He sees a long history of using the moral system as an attempt to overcome individualism. He also vehemently opposes morality, pushing for boring mediocrity. Apart from discovering the mundane in modern science, many people are too concerned with digging up dry and boring facts. Therefore, Nietzsche created a law of cause and effect to deal with empty facts. By confirming a ranking order, everyone can measure spiritual strength.

The differences between each person unreasonably apply one moral code. In Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche suggests how humanistic beliefs have every abomination towards one another. Mercilessly, everyone exposed every prejudice. Assumptions dig deeper into the basics. Regardless of which, everyone has prejudices, launching the author’s tirade of more than eight pages. He also addresses the question of patriotism by seeing that different races inherently have specific characteristics. He attacked anti-Semitism as well as criticized Britain. In the last part, he presents a concept of glory. The solitary and suffering soul had risen far above the ordinary people. Regardless of being unrecognizable, it became a misunderstanding of a noble soul sitting on a mountaintop.

Bad Habits

Nietzsche recognizes that human thinking habits shape what society knows as the mind in a philosophical corpus. However, some people can also call it cognition. Regardless of which, Nietzsche prefers to call it recognition. It becomes an expression of new insight through signs that people already know. Shaped by habitual senses, treatment beliefs reinforce everyone’s subconscious expectations. It became a horizon about the measurement of the world. In many contexts, simultaneously, it is physiological but cultural. Apart from using aphorisms as a weapon, Nietzsche’s writings became a new horizon or mecca for philosophy. It sets a limit rather than a definition by limit. In contrast to the knowledge category, it serves as a limited number of thought inputs.

The proverb is singular but has twists and turns framing thoughts like leather. By covering but growing with boundaries, Nietzsche also adds not so much orthodoxy as suggesting new ways of modern philosophical activity. It is essential how the aphoristic style of Beyond Good and Evil should develop in Nietzsche’s humanistic beliefs. As he explores the extent to which ideas can transform energy, enthusiasm begins to wane for the sake of philology. The results of his suffering also cannot be denied by people. Illness gave him the right to reverse a habit completely. From a new perspective, people began to ask what conditions dominant judgments and perceptions foster the image of psychological criticism. Not without danger, such methods can cause mental symptoms. Logically, he uses his life journey as instrumentalism.


Overall, Nietzsche’s humanistic beliefs in Beyond Good and Evil rely on a solid understanding of his views on conception and language. At the very bottom, it lies beliefs about the universe. It is in a state of constant change. Hatred and contempt for almost any position can be traced back to the temptation of position. In viewing the universe as fixed in one place, Nietzsche’s skepticism tends individuals to adopt a fixed perspective on things. The human mind can flow and change as things in the universe flow. However, when the individual utters a word, the trait cannot change.

Language tends to such gaze. He expressed the world in terms of things, causing philosophers not to think of the world as fluid. The rigidity of the world of facts is definitively the source of society’s conception of other absolutes. Like morality and God, traditional philosophy is far from rigid. It is always subject to changes, likewise with society’s concept of goodness, which has opposite meanings at different times. In particular, all drives boil down to a desire for power. The concept of kindness has had different meanings from time to time. Therefore, such concepts and interpretations are only signs of the will to work on a concept.

Fundamental Value of Humans

When it comes to the ideal picture of the world, it is not necessarily bad for humans. With evidence, fiction has made humans have civilization and can set foot on the moon. In the modern era, ideal thoughts still exist and continue to develop like western ideologies and major religions. Humans need to believe in things as a fundamental value in life, whether in any form. Without the concept of the world, humans would be no different from animals.

Animals will always be wild without principles and prone to suicide and extinction. While people’s values should be realistic, they are not absolute truths that everyone should impose on other individuals. In such a case, George Orwell explained in 1984 how an ideal state order is. Apart from what distinguishes other party members from the ideals of a more private world, non-existent and impossible, such fictions were lost in an era while humans still existed. However, what makes a problem is how many doses humans take. The result will surely lead to disaster for the world.

The Unorthodox World

Philosophically, there is no such thing as a single correct point of view. Every point of view is an expression of many wills. Society should also try to stay flexible by seeing the problem from different perspectives. Nietzsche’s idealism is freedom in overturning the truth. The dogma of rigid thinking will always see moral concepts such as good or evil only as a surface. Such a surface also has no inherent meaning. Thus, it will turn desire into inner strength. They will always struggle constantly against each other to overcome assumptions.

Despite being unorthodox about the truth, Nietzsche’s thinking can make connections along the way. There is no single linear argument because he does not see truth as a simple dimensional world picture. In terms of complexity, the world is three-dimensional, like a hologram. Such holograms also approximate the whole and present a more complex worldview. Nietzsche’s perspective in his practice is that every reader can interpret every proverb from Beyond Good and Evil. The line always moves from perspective to perspective. However, people will always end up with Nietzsche’s philosophy.

The Critique of Hegelianism

Nietzsche offers a stance on such problems by always keeping a distance from such concepts. However, it also does not reject that humans need to believe in something. He proposes that the individual always flows in being a fundamental value. Without ever patenting a single concept of ideal truth, humans do need a value; however, it is only limited to meeting the needs to continue living. Without considering the value that individuals hold as a truth, the ideal concept must be viewed as an item only.

By adjusting as needed and over time, Nietzsche can propose that each individual must be more progressive. In terms of the value that humans hold on the world’s mind, be it individuals or groups, such as metaphysics, religion, and ideology Nietzsche himself has also put forward the idea of an ideal world through his thoughts. It would make his thinking paradoxical when talking about opium’s good and evil habits at the outset. According to Karl Marx, in his critique of the philosophy of Hegelianism, religion is the sighing sigh of a repressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of a soulless condition.

The Hedonic State

Interestingly, Nietzsche claims that a second-order positive hedonic state deflects a negative hedonic state. It is not related to Apollonian. On the other hand, the pleasures associated with the Apollonian only coincide with the negative emotions of the Dionysian, and the second fun is related to one coin with two different sides. Regardless of which, it is Apollonian delight as a first-rate pleasure in the medium of presenting havoc. In contrast, the second pleasure is related to the painful emotion, the pleasure in pain, and it is an example of the phenomenon of pain-producing joy. According to Nietzsche, playing with the evil of displeasure and starting such a game justifies the humanistic beliefs of even the worst worlds.

It is one of Nietzsche’s more interesting ideas but does not provide a clearer job. However, his idea is proleptic of Nietzsche’s more thorough discussion of the excitement of painful tragedy. He began to understand what was pleasurable in the tragic experience as a spirituality of cruelty, namely the pleasure of making oneself suffer at the sight of the suffering of others. As far as the view is concerned, it prominently illustrates the doctrine of the will in power. The excitement, sweetness, and enjoyment of the safety of tragedy are above the cruelty that informs the drama. It causes all humanity to suffer. The pleasure accompanying such suffering is the feeling of strength that accompanies the acknowledgment that humans can reveal themselves to harsh truths.

Ties That Bind

The moral implications of a tragedy itself determine Nietzsche’s ethical position. In tragedy, suffering does not presently honor as a goal to be pursued by humans or as an embodiment of the project. His thought is that one can better cope with the world’s suffering if one takes a certain attitude. However, such an establishment does not call for someone to go around inflicting suffering on people. Tragedy teaches every human being that suffering will be the center of life. Part of Nietzsche’s point is that the world makes people suffer independently.

It cannot be avoided as a function of the natural constraint. Whether it is immoral to suffer aesthetically is under the question of Nietzsche’s value of life. Nietzsche’s humanistic beliefs address the problem of not sinking into evil at the amount of suffering in the world. The exception is if someone believes that God is healthy and alive. At least, if coping means the ability to endure such a horror rather than simply avoiding it by taking drugs, as Nietzsche claims, the experience of suffering that is not psychologically mediating is incompatible with life affirmation. It would remove ethical objections to adopting an aesthetic attitude to suffering. Man must see suffering as a beautiful thing.

The Node

In short, Beyond Good and Evil is a critique of modernity and humanistic beliefs, being a hook but referring to readers who read Thus Spoke Zarathustra. It shows the direction Nietzsche begins to invite his readers to consider the compatibility of his ontological conclusions. With contemporary advantages, it must learn to trace the material to which, most importantly, the will to power. However, it has no intention of pursuing such a statement. With an urge, he has also said how individuals will hear him, in a way that any high insight one should hear as evil or folly. Therefore, immediately after experimentally drawing his fundamental ontological conclusions.

He allows the audience he wants, free-thinking, to express the reader’s reactions. However, many people denounced him for the highest crime. The argument from the book presents the relationship between will and power and eternal return as a relationship between value and fact. In Nietzsche’s version, that rightly produces the good, eternal return in itself is not an ontological claim but an ideal that arises from fundamental ontological discoveries. Discovery leads to discovery where what the reader finds is ideals of a religious and inventive nature. The gift-giving philosopher becomes the central node of the entire economy of value and existence. He, the product of the world’s excesses, returns gifts in ideal forms that bless the world.


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